Regulations in Oil Pollution Prevention

The continuous strive of prevention and reduction of the ship-generated pollution of the seas by oil is the core objective setting of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78. Annex I applies to all oil tankers of 150 GT and above, and every other ship of 400 GT and above.
Annex I gives requirements for survey and issuance of International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificates (IOPP) and regulations related to:

•    Tanks for oil residues – every ship of 400 tonnage and above shall be provided with a tank or tanks adequate capacity, having regard to the machinery and length of voyage, to receive (sludge) which cannot be dealt with otherwise in accordance with the water purification of fuel and lubricating oil and oil leakages in the machinery spaces
•    Standard discharge connection – to enable pipes of reception facilities to be connected to the ship’s discharge pipeline for residues from machinery bilges and from sludge tanks, both lines shall a be fitted with a standard discharge connection.
•    Oil filtering equipment – any ship of 400 gross tonnage but less than 10000 gross tonnage shall be fitted with oil filtering equipment.
•    Segregation of oil and water ballast and  and carriage of oil in forespeak tanks – ship’s 4000 gross tonnage and above other oil tankers delivered after 31 December 1979, and ships of 150 gross tonnage, no ballast water shall be carried in any other oil fuel tanks.
•    Segregated ballast tanks – requirement for all tankers of 20000 tones deadweight  and above every product carrier of 30000 tones deadweight  and above delivered after June 1, 1982. The need for segregated ballast tank is to avoid the load of ballast water into cargo tanks that contain oil residues and thus reduces the possibility of marine pollutants into the sea in case there will be a discharge of dirty oil into the sea.
•    Double hulled and double bottom requirements – the entire cargo length shall be protected by ballast tanks or spaces other than tanks that carry oil.
•    Double bottom tanks or spaces – at any cross-section, the depth of each double bottom tank or space shall be such that the distance h between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the moulded line of the bottom shell plating.
•    The aggregate capacity of ballast tank
•    Suction wells in cargo tanks
•    Ballast and cargo piping
•    Double hull and double bottom requirements for oil tankers delivered before July 6, 1996
•    Pump-room bottom protection
•    Accidental oil outflow performance
•    Subdivision and damage stability
•    Slop tanks
•    Pumping and discharge arrangements
•    Oil discharge monitoring and control system
•    Oil/water interface detector
•    Crude oil washing requirements
•    Control of discharge oil
•    Crude oil washing operation

Source: Maritime Pollution by Adriano A. Arcelo